Egyptian

Egyptian Timeline

Ancient Egyptian history is divided into three large parts, known as the Old, Middle and New Kingdoms. Smaller parts are known as periods. The pharaohs are ordered into 31 dynasties, or groups. This simplified table lists the dynasties, their approximate dates and the dates that some pharaohs reigned.

All dates are BCE (before the Common Era). BCE dates are counted back from the year 1, which is taken to be the beginning of the Common Era. There was no year 0. These dates work in the same way as BC (before Christ) and AD (Anno Domini, “the year of Our Lord”). Some dates have a “c” in front of them. This stands for “circa“, which means “about”. These dates are mainly guesses, because no one knows what the real date is.

Pre-Dynastic Period

c. 5500-3100 BCE

  • Before Egypt was ruled by pharaohs.

Early Dynastic Period

c. 3100-2686 BCE

  • First pharaohs.
  • Egypt united as one land.
  • First hieroglyphs written.

1st Dynasty 3100-2890
Narmer (rist pharaoh, 3100)
2nd Dynasty 2890-2686

Old Kingdom

c. 2686-2181 BCE

  • Powerful pharaohs.
  • First Pyramids built.

3rd Dynasty 2686-2613
Sanakht (2686-2667)
Djoser (2667-2648)
Sekhemkhet (2648-2640)
Khaba (2640-2637)
Huni (2637-2613)
4th Dynasty 2613-2494)
Sneferu (2613-2589)
Khufu (2589-2566)
Djedefre (2566-2558)
Khafre (2558-2532)
Menkaure (2532-2503)
Shepseskaf (2503-2498)
5th Dynasty 2494-2345
Userkaf (2494-2487)
Sahure (2487-2487)
Neferirkare (2475-2455)
Shepseskare (2455-2448)
Raneferef (2448-2445)
Nyuserre (2445-2421)
Menkauhor (2421-2414)
Djedkare (2414-2375)
Unas (2375-2345)
6th Dynasty 2345-2181
Teti (2345-2323)
Userkere (2323-2321)
Pepi (2321-2287)
Merenre (2287-2278)
Pepi II (2278-2184)
Nitiqret (2184-2181)

First Intermediate Period

c. 2181-2055 BCE

  • Many minor pharaohs.

7th-8th Dynasties 2181-2125
9th-10th Dynasties 2160-2025
11th Dynasty 2125-2055

Middle Kingdom

c. 2055-1650 BCE

  • Powerful pharaohs return.

11th Dynasty 2055-1985
Mentuhotep II (2055-2004)
Mentuhotep III (2004-1992)
Mentuhotep IV (1992-1985)
12th Dynasty 1985-1795
Amenemhet I (1985-1955)
Senusret I (1965-1920)
Amenemhet II (1922-1878)
Senusret II (1880-1874)
Senusret III (1874-1855)
Amenemhet III (1855-1808)
Amenemhet IV (1808-1799)
Queen Sobeknerfu (1799-1795)
13th-14th Dynasties 1795-1650

  • About 70 minor pharaohs.

Second Intermediate Period

c. 1650-1550 BCE

  • Egypt ruled by foreign kings.

15th-16th Dynasties 1650-1550
17th Dynasty 1650-1550

New Kingdom

c. 1550-1069 BCE

  • Egypt at its most powerful.
  • Pharaohs buried in rock-cut tombs.
  • Expeditions to foreign lands.
  • Changes made to religion.

18th Dynasty 1550-1295
Ahmose I (1550-1525)
Amenhotep I (1525-1504)
Tuthmosis I (1504-1492)
Tuthmosis II (1492-1479)
Tuthmosis III (1479-1424)
Queen Hatshepsut (1473-2458)
Amenhotep II (1427-1400)
Tuthmosis IV (1400-1390)
Amenhotep III (1390-1352)
Amenhotep IV (Akhenaten) (1352-1336)
Smenkhkare (1338-1336
tutankhamun (1336-1327)
Ay (1327-1323)
Horemheb (1323-1325)
19th Dynasty 1295-1186
Ramesses I (1295-1294)
Seti I (1294-1979)
Ramesses II (1279-1213)
Merneptah (1213-1203)
Amenmessu (1203-1200)
Seti II (1200-1194)
Siptah (1194-1188)
Queen Tausret (1188-1186)
20th Dynasty 1186-1069
Sethnakhte (1186-1184)
Ramesses III (1184-1153)
Ramesses IV (1153-1147)
Ramesses V (1147-1143)
Ramesses VI (1143-1136)
Ramesses VII (1136-1129)
Ramesses VIII (1129-1126)
Ramesses IX (1126-1108)
Ramesses X (1108-1099)
Ramesses XI (1099 – 1069)

Third Intermediate Period

c. 1069-715 BCE

  • Unsettled time.
  • Rule by joint pharaohs.

21st Dynasty 1069-945
22nd Dynasty 945-715
23rd Dynasty 818-715
24th Dynasty 727-715

Late Dynastic Period

c. 747-332 BCE

  • A further unsettled time.
  • Rule by joint pharaohs.
  • Pharaohs from foreign lands.

25th Dynasty 747-656
26th Dynasty 664-525
27th Dynasty 525-404
28th Dynasty 404-399
29th Dynasty 399-380
30th Dynasty 380-343
31st Dynasty 343-332

The Graeco-Roman Period

332-30 BCE

  • Egypt belongs to the Greek empire of Alexander the Great.
  • Egypt then becomes a province of the Roman Empire.
  • Egypt’s last two pharaohs are:
    Queen Cleopatra VII (51-30)
    Ptolemy XV Caesarion (44-30)

Source: Egypt by John Malam

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